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हिन्दी

CaneDES
An Expert System for Disorder Diagnosis in Sugarcane Crop



 
   
 

Technologies developed by IISR


CoLk 94184, an early maturing sugarcane variety

The Institute developed a high sugar yielding cane variety, CoLk 94184 (Birendra) which has been released  for commercial cultivation in North Central Zone of the country (eastern U.P. and Bihar). CoLk 94184 is a rare combination of two desirable attributes i.e., early maturity and good ratooning ability. This variety will help in addressing the problem of low sugar and poor ratoonability of the existing sugarcane varieties in the region. CoLk 94184 variety can withstand both moisture stress and waterlogging, hence, it is capable of providing a boost to sugar recovery and cane production in U. P. and Bihar.  On an average farmers can harvest 76 tonnes of cane per hectare.

 

Spaced transplanting technique (STP)

A spaced transplanting (STP) technique has been developed for synchronisation of tillering and quick seed multiplication of sugarcane. It increases seed multiplication ratio from 1:10 to 1:40. It has become popular even in the neighbouring countries. It has contributed in fast spreading of newly evolved varieties at several places.

   

Three-tier seed programme

This programme provides disease-free healthy seed to growers. It has become popular all over the country. Moist-hot-air equipment, designed and developed at this Institute have been installed in a number of sugar factories. It has proved its usefulness in sustaining sugarcane production.

   

Technology package for intercropping in sugarcane

Sugarcane + Potato
  • Seed rate: Sugarcane- 60 q/ha, Potato-25 q/ha
  • 1:2 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and two rows of potato are accommodated at 30 cm spacing
  • Weed control through Simazine @ 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by hoeing and earthing up at 30 and 50 DAP respectively
  • Apply N:P:K fertilizers for Sugarcane @ 150:60:60, for Potato @ 120px:80:100.
  • System yields: Potato-272 q/ha and Sugarcane-90.6 t/ha with a profit margin of Rs.1, 06,736 /ha
Sugarcane + Rajmash
  • Seed rate: Sugarcane- 60 q/ha, Rajmash- 80 kg/ha
  • 1:2 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm accommodating two rows of rajmash at 30 cm spacing
  • Apply N:P:K fertilizers for Sugarcane @ 150:60:60, for Rajmash @ 80:40:30.
  • Control weeds through Pendimethalin as pre-emergence @ 2 kg a.i./ha followed by 2 to 3 hoeing after harvest of rajmash
  • System yields : Sugarcane-86.8 t/ha, Rajmash grain-17.5 q/ha with profit margin of Rs.89, 884/ha
Sugarcane + Mustard
  • Seed rate :Sugarcane: 60 q/ha, Mustard: 5 kg /ha
  • 1:2 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and two rows of mustard accommodated at 30 cm spacing
  • Apply N:P:K fertilizers for Sugarcane @ 150:60:60, for Mustard @ 30:20:0.
  • Control weeds through Pendimethalin @ 2 kg a.i./ha as preemergence followed by two hoeing at 30 and 60 days after harvest of mustard
  • System yield : Sugarcane-86.8 t/ha, Mustard-17.5 q/ha with a profit margin of Rs.89, 884/ha
Sugarcane + Wheat
  • Seed rate: Sugarcane: 60 q/ha, Wheat: 75 kg /ha
  • 1:3 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and three rows of wheat accommodated at 20 cm spacing through IISR Planter cum Seeder under FIRB system
  • Apply N:P:K fertilizers for Sugarcane @ 150:60:60, for Wheat @ 90:45:45.
  • Control weeds through Pendimethalin @ 2 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by two hoeing at 30 and 60 days after harvest of wheat
  • System yield : Sugarcane-74.5 t/ha, Wheat-39.4 q/ha with a profit margin of Rs.56329 /ha.
   

Technology package for modified planting methods in sugarcane

Ring-Pit method
  • Mother shoot technology or no tiller technology
  • Specifications:
    - Pit diameter : 75 cm
    - Depth : 30 cm
    - Centre to centre : 105 cm
    - No. of pits/ha : 9000
  • Suitable for drought prone areas, undulating topography, light textured soils, saline - sodic soils, multiple ratooning and high yielding, tall and thick cane varieties

 
Trench method
  • Trench specifications : 30 cm wide and deep
                                            : Centre to centre 120px cm (30: 90 cm)
  • Mechanized operation
  • Less labour requirement
  • Enhanced water use efficiency
FIRB method of planting
  • Appropriate FIRB configuration (50-30-50 cm)
  • Sowing of wheat on ridges (2-3 lines) in November
  • Manual planting of sugarcane in irrigation ditches in Feb. - March
  • Raising sugarcane through spaced transplanting technique and poly bag system.
  • Enhances 30% yield of sugarcane as compared to sequential with full yield of wheat
   

Sugarcane Ratoon Management

  • At initiation dismantling of ridges, stubble shaving and off-barring is recommended for good ratoon yield.
  • Gap filling with slip setts/pregerminated setts/polybag raised settlings is a must if gaps exceed 15% of normal crop stand. More than 45 cm distance between subsequent clumps is taken as gap.
  • Paired row system of planting (120px:30) reduces gaps and optimizes plant population in subsequent ratoon. Thus it produces higher yields compared to sole planting at 90 cm.
  • Trash mulching (10 cm thick) in alternate rows for conserving soil moisture, minimizing weed infestation and maintaining soil organic carbon.
  • Application of potassium (80 kg K2O/ha) with irrigation water in standing plant cane one month prior to harvesting improves bud sprouting, number of millable canes and yield of succeeding ratoon crop.

   

Skip furrow method of irrigation-a Water saving sugarcane production technology

After germination of sugarcane (35-40 days after planting), 45 cm wide and 15 cm deep furrows are made in alternate rows. It saves irrigation water by 36.5% and improves water use efficiency by 64%.

   

Weed management

An effective integrated method of weed management involving cultural and chemical methods has been evolved. It comprises of one hoeing after first irrigation and application of Atrazine @ 2.0 kg ai/ha after second irrigation. It is effective in checking weed growth (WCE 97-100%) and increases cane yield and saves 50% cost as compared to manual hoeing. Metribuzin 1.0 kg ai/ha, or Ametryn 2.0 kg ai/ha or Atrazine 2.0 kg ai/ha as pre-emergence application followed by 2,4-D @ 1.0 kg ai/ha at 60 days after planting (DAP) and one hoeing at 90 DAP has been recommended for effective and economic weed management in sugarcane.

 
   

Management of Diseases

General  
  • Treatment of seed cane in Moist Hot Air Unit (MHAT) at 540C and 95-99% RH for 2 hours eradicates sett-borne infections of ratoon stunting disease (RSD), grassy shoot disease (GSD) and smut (99-100%). It also reduces the sett-borne infections of leaf scald and red rot up to 80%.
  • Removal and destruction of infected plants on the first appearance of the disease in case of red rot, smut, GSD and leaf scald.
  • Treatment of setts with fungicides like Bavistin, Vitavax, Dithane M-45 etc. at the time of planting
    protects the setts from surface-borne propagules and superficial infections and rotting.
  • Management of seedling diseases (fluff raised) in the nursery bed was achieved through pre sowing application of formaldehyde and seed treatment with Thiram and post sowing application of Ridomil, Bavistin, and the pre-sowing application of Trichoderma.


Red Rot  
  • Developed an integrated red rot management schedule using healthy seed cane and application of Trichoderma through enrichment of pressmud.
  • Established that frequent breakdown of varietal resistance against red rot is due to the appearance of new pathotypes matching the resistance of cane genotypes.
  • Disease appearance in May-June (pre-monsoon) , as spindle infection acts as the major source of secondary inoculum and in favourable wheather helps in rapid spread of the disease.
Smut  
  • Developed a staining technique to detect latent infection of smut in nodal and apical buds.
  • An integrated management module using MHAT trash burning, stubble shaving and roughing of affected clump was developed.
Wilt  
  • Acremonium implicatum and A. furcatum were identified as causal agents of wilt disease of sugarcane.
RSD  
  • Ratoon stunting disease was identified as the key disease in variatal deterioration/decline.
  • Management schedule using heat therapy was developed and perfected.
Mosaic  
  • Three strains viz., AB and F of SCMV (Sugarcane mosiac virus) are present in subtropical India and strain B is the most prevalent.
GSD  
  • Deltocephalus vulgaris was identified as the leaf hopper vector of GSD (Grassy shoot disease) phytoplasma.
   

Management of insect-pests

General  
  • Developed an integrated IPM schedule for borer complexes in sugarcane.
  • Promoted bio-control of Pyrilla, woolly aphid, scale insect and borer complexes in large scale in different States through introductions, inundative releases and conservations of parasitoids and predators.
 
Pyrilla  
  • The field technology for bio-control of Pyrilla through conservation and redistribution of Epiricania melanoleca @ 4000-5000 cocoons/ha was
    developed.
Wooly Aphid  
  • Release of Dipha aphidivora @ 1000 larvae / ha or Micromus igorotus @ 2000 larvae / ha at 15 days Interval from August to October.
Stalk and Internode borer  
  • Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 50,000 adults /ha (two trichocards) at 10 days interval from July to October and Cotesia flavipes, @ 500 gravid females /ha/week from July to November.

Top border and white grub  
  • Soil application of Furdan 3G @33 kg /ha carbofuran 1 kg a.i./ha) or Thimet 10 G @ 30 kg /ha ( thimet 1 kg a.i./ha) around the clump base during 2nd -3rd week of June along with trapping of top borer moths using pheromone trap. Availability of sufficient has to be ensur ed be for e the insecticide application for uptake of insectide from soil.
  • Developed a light + pheromone trap to catch adult white grub beetles.

Termite, early shoot borer and root borer  
  • Application of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 5 litres/ha in 1600-1800 litres water (3 ml/litre) over cane setts in
    furrows at planting for checking the infestation of termite, white grub, shoot borer and root borer.
  • Collection and destruction of infested shoots at periodic intervals from March to May on campaign basis.



Rodents  
  • Integrated rodent management programme for sugarcane based cropping system was evolved.
  • Seasonal activity of rodent was worked out and rodent control with zinc phosphide (2%) baiting followed by bromadiolone baiting was validated on large area.
   

Sugarbeet

  • Developed popular sugarbeet varieties like IISR Comp.- 1, LS- 6.
  • Developed 40 diploid multigerm inbred lines of sugarbeet.
  • Developed one diploid multigerm cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer ('O' type).
  • Development of sugarbeet seed production technique under field condition (in 10-11 months).
  • Pelleting of seeds of sugarbeet with fungicide + bentonite clay was standardized for management of seedling diseases.
  • T. harzianum in combination with fungicides controlled Sclerotium root rot of sugarbeet.
   

Mechanization of cane agriculture

Ridger- type sugarcane cutter-planter  

Rridger type sugarcane cutter- planter, PTO driven, was developed for planting of sugarcane which performs major operations involved in cane planting at a spacing of 75/90 cm. It has effective capacity of planting one ha in 4-5 hours and saves approximately 60% cost of planting operation.

Three-row multipurpose sugarcane cutter- planter  

Three-row multipurpose sugarcane cutter planter, ground wheel driven, was developed for planting of sugarcane which performs all operations involved in cane planting at a spacing of 75 cm. It has effective capacity of planting of one ha in 3.5 to 4 hours, and saves approximately 70% cost of planting operation.

Paired row sugarcane cutter-planter  

Paired row sugarcane cutter-planter, PTO driven, was developed for planting of sugarcane under paired row geometry (30 cm spacing). The subsequent spacing between the paired rows could be varied. It has effective capacity of planting of one ha in 4-5 hours, and saves approx. 60% cost of planting operation.

Zero-till sugarcane cutter-planter  

Zero-till sugarcane cutter-planter, PTO driven, was developed for planting sugarcane which performs all operations involved in cane planting at a spacing of 75/90 cm. It has effective capacity of planting of one ha in 4-5 hours, and saves approx. 60% cost of planting operation. It also saves the cost of seed bed preparation.

Two row pit digger  

Two row pit-digger was developed for making 25-30 cm deep, circular pits of 75 cm diameter at 30 cm spacing for planting sugarcane under ring pit system. It has effective capacity of digging 150 pits/hr (0.017 ha/hr) and saves 400 man-days/ha. It saves about 70% cost of dgging pits compared to manual digging.

Raised bed seeder  

Raised bed seeder was developed for making three raised beds (2 full beds + 2 half beds)-for sowing of wheat simultaneously at a spacing of 17 cm, and three furrows at a spacing of 75 cm- for planting of sugarcane as and when required. It has an effective capacity of 0.35-0.40 ha/hr.

Raised bed seeder-cum-sugarcane cutter planter  

Raised bed seeder-cum-sugarcane cutter planter was developed to plant two rows of sugarcane in furrows and drill two rows of wheat as companion crop on the main raised beds and one each on the either side of half raised beds. It has effective capacity of 0.20-0.25 ha/h and saves approximately 60% of the cost of operation.

Ratoon Management Device  

Ratoon management device was developed which executes all the operations involved in management of ratoon crop such as stubble shaving, deep tilling, off-barring, placing manure, fertilizer/bio-agents, chemicals in liquid form and earthing up operations in a single pass of operation. It has capacity of 0.35-0.40 ha/hr and saves 60% of the cost of operation.

   
 
   
 

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